The India Mark II hand pump technology is a human-powered pump designed to lift water from a depth of fifty metres or less. The Mark II is world's most widely used water handpump.The pump was designed in the 1970s to serve village water needs in developing countries and rural areas. The pump is installed on top of a drilled well or borehole and lifts water from the bottom of the well through repeatedly moving the pump handle up and down. Several manufacturers, primarily in India, manufacture the pump which now falls under public domain. By the mid 1990s, five million of the pumps had been manufactured and installed.The pump was designed in the 1970s in a joint effort between the Government of India, UNICEF, and The World Health Organization (WHO) to address the severe drought and a water shortage affecting India during that period and to prevent evacuation of villages to refugee camps.